Update based on ongoing discussions meetings

Human Resource Development (Under the New Act in alignment with CRPD)

(An update based on ongoing discussions- 2 meetings of the subgroup and 1 meeting with resource people) Next meeting at NALSAR with Legal Consultant - 17th September, 2010

Subgroup members: Dr.Govind Rao, Mr.Akhil Paul, Maj.Gen. Ian Cardozo, Mr. Khuntia, Ms. G.Syamala

Chairperson, Committee on the New Act Dr.Sudha Kaul: attended the meeting with resource people/experts

Resource people/Experts invited for the 3rd Meeting: Dr. Sudesh Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Sunanda Reddy, Dr. Anita Ghai, Dr. Mishra, Ms. Radhika Alkazi, and Ms. Madhu Grover.

Observers for the third meeting: Ms. Nidhi Jalan and Ms. Charulekha Gupta.

Background - Some concerns

  • People with disability do not have access to basic services/ human resource to meet their needs
  • Need for trained human resource is felt/ market is less, people are not employed
  • Trained personnell do not reach where the need is.
  • Often courses are created but employment options not thought of. There are often no takers for various courses. There is no granting agency to support HR development programme run by NGOs.
  • What is the relevance of the current special programmes of RCI? What are the other programmes that need to be developed to sensitise all service providers. Need to think of programmes that address all domains of life.
  • One needs to understand the reasons why the demand is not there for trained manpower. Incentives for professionals to work in the field irrespective of the course quality issue.
  • There is no career path or equitable employment for people trained through the courses. Disability training has been isolated from an upward path. No structures to support that progression. Except the link of special educators to SSA (which is also not a very strong link).
  • Demand has to be met for the stipulated rights and human resource for that.
  • Framework for human resource requirement at specific and community level with the appropriate authority linked to it, to address all needs across the life span for a person with disability.
  • About 380 institutions including universities, national, apex level institutions, NGOs (70- 75%). Most institutes are conducting more than one course with a total of 52 courses which are being conducted thro face to face and distance mode (7-8). An avg. about 1000-1200 trained per year. About 50,000 people are registered with RCI currently. A report with details of current trained manpower has been released in Feb 2010. The report projects a figure of human resource required to the tune of 1.82 lacs by the end of 2012 keeping census figures in mind. This report is not based on an understanding of human resource requirement post UNCRPD
  • Currently human resource is seen as a voluntary workforce and are given honorarium as compensation for work.
  • RCI Act does not provide for a vision or a policy on human resource requirement.
  • The current Indian scenario of training in disability rehabilitation field is multi-level and multi-durational within the same disciplines. These courses are run by various organizations and institutions in the private, public and governmental sectors. Some courses are recognized by RCI and many others are not. Certain courses are State specific, recognized by State authorities and have validity within that State only. RCI itself recognizes 56 courses in the disability rehabilitation areas namely special education in visual, hearing, mental retardation, locomotor and multi-disability; prosthetic and orthotics; audiology and speech-language pathology; rehabilitation therapy; rehabilitation psychology; clinical psychology; and vocational counseling. Out of these courses 5 are at certificate level, 19 at pre-graduate diploma level, and 7 at P.G. diploma level, 12 at graduate degree level, 11 at Masters degree level, and 2 at M.Phil. level. In the absence of any organized structure available to place the various courses in their appropriate categories and levels, each course is treated more or less individually. (Source - RCI Report)

The HR under the New Act to be guided by:

  • Overall general obligation: To ensure and promote the full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all persons with disabilities without discrimination of any kind on the basis of disability.
  • Specific obligation for human resource development: To promote the training of professionals and staff working with persons with disabilities in the rights recognized in the the New Act so as to better provide the assistance and services guaranteed by those rights.( Reference from CRPD)
  • Key principles

    All the training programs will be based on social model of disability and rights based paradigm within the key principles of:

    • Inclusion
    • Participation
    • Dignity
    • Empowerment
    • Acknowledging the evolving capacities of people
    • Acknowledging the multiple vulnerabilities and barriers faced by persons with disabilities
    • Acknowledging the evolving concept of disability and not only focusing on the impairments known today.
  • Kinds Of Human Resource Required
For Specific Services For Inclusive Services
  • Urban/Rural Focus
  • Multi-tiered
    • Primary level: maybe cross sectoral
    • Secondary level: transdisciplinary
    • Tertiary: multidisciplinary, specialists in Functional Domains/Impairment Specific Intervention/enabling and Inclusive environments
  • Capacity Building of all existing service providers - Continuing Professional Development
  • Current Training Programmes of all disciplines including health, Education, Rural development, social Work, Mental health, Public Administration, Urban/Rural Planning, Architecture, Design, Media, Information Technology, Engineering, Instrumentation, Finance, and leisure will have to be reviewed and change to make the programmes deliver skills that are inclusive and universal
  • Recommendations on Structures
    • All training should be under HRD. It has been suggested to the legal body framing the Disability Act that all other laws related to training need to be considered while framing the new disability Act
    • MHRD to oversee all human resource requirement for inclusive services for people with disability through a central and state HRD wing
    • RCI- would need to align itself to UNCRPD and be, guided by the vision of the Human Resource Requirement of the New Act.
    • Proposed/Anticipated changes in MHRD - to bring all training Institutes under the same umbrella? RCI or by another name - Inclusion Council of India reports to MHRD?
    • National Institutes as training and research bodies to be brought under MHRD. All national Institutes to align to UNCRPD (within their specific domain areas, progressing towards cross disability)
    • Create a National Institute for Inclusion and Research under MHRD Provision for "Critical Disability Research"- Disability & Economics; Disability & History; Disability & Women; Disability & politics etc.
    • Coordination and communication between MSJE and MHRD would need to be worked out for effective HR development and service delivery
    • Cross-ministerial/Departments linkages to be created - training of health workers and professionals by Min of health, Teachers and other professionals by Min of HRD must all be integrated and be governed by the key principles of the New Act. Model rules of RTE and the HR component of the RTE must be aligned to the principles of the New ACT. Currently there are no systems and structures to incorporate disability within the mandate of existing human resource that exists at different levels e.g. Anganwadi workers, Asha workers, teachers and so on
    • Convergence with other training programmes like the ITIs needs to be considered.
    • A basic orientation and skill of all professionals (nurse, doctor, health professionals, legal professionals, engineers, architect) who are working with any person/child with disability across the life span
    • A network of trained manpower across various domains of life needs to be created so that all services are accessible for people with disabilities and there is an accessible and inclusive environment and rights of people are addressed. There has to be law that enforces this for all programmes
    • The ICDS should include children with disabilities. Cannot have a parallel system. We would look at all other human resource as well in labor, women and child departments.
  • Recommendations on Policy
    • Study Human resource requirement based on current thinking and perspective - within 6months of passing the Act and every 5 years thereafter
    • Identify magnitude of work. What is the current human resource at all levels, what is the further training required for people at these levels. How do you make people self sufficient
    • Know present status of HR available for specific disabilities. Where do we stand today where do we need to go what kind of human resource is required at different levels. Resources required for health across the country and across various contexts urban rural specific groups
    • Need to know what is existing in the current scenario of workforce in health and other sectors and how we are meeting the present needs at the grassroot level to understand that and what kind of training is required to meet the evolving needs of people
    • What is the profile of these people and their current workload to see what kind of capacity building is required
    • In all Ministries there needs to be a representation of people with disability while framing policies, conducting reviews and audits, so that people who have experienced the reality have a say.
    • Are people with disability part of this consultation process as part of the sub committees- people who are at the receiving end of services? We need to be clear that the resource devt is need based.
    • It is important to listen to the needs of the people with disabilities to develop the HR framework under the New Act.
    • Build multi-tiered, multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary human resources foe specific and inclusive service delivery in all aspects of life, aligned to the New Act. Develop training programs for the same
    • Review all existing programs of RCI, MCI, IIT, IIMs, Judiciary or any other body for alignment with UNCRPD
    • Training Programs to follow 4Ds - Dissemination, Delivery, Development and Discovery
    • Training programs to cover all life cycle needs
  • Recommendations on Systems and Standards
    • Set minimum standards for training programs and regulate standards of the implementing agencies
    • Develop norms, systems, processes, tools, training programs, material etc for developing skilled human resource for inclusive services
    • Develop national guidelines, benchmarks, and standards for specific and inclusive services for people with disability
    • Set up HRD principles, guidelines, processes and systems for monitoring and evaluation based on CRPD principles
    • Continuous professional development - sensitization in rights and inclusion of people with disability - incentives as part of appraisals
    • Organize a national database of human resource for disability specific and inclusive service providers for people with disability
    • Ensure a process for audits, reviews and impact assessments of training programs, and ensure participation of people with disability in the process
  • Recommendations on the kinds of Human Resource required

    Understanding identity of the person with impairment as a member of a peer group of that age group and understanding needs across life domains in relation to that. This is relevant for all age groups from infancy to old age. This is important for all personnel interacting with persons with disability to acknowledge and address.

    Basic Level: (from infancy to old age for specific and inclusive services): sahoyogis/personal assistance and linking to information, resources, schemes and services for addressing individual needs in communication/mobility/education/decision making etc., in both urban and rural communities. And specific person as facilitator of knowledge and processes at the community level for inclusion could be attached to the panchayat/municipal communities. This person could be called as the inclusion practioner and would work with primary health workers, ASHA worker, nurses, paraclinical staff, CBR worker (facilitator of knowledge & processes at the community level, any service provider. etc, panchayat and sarpanch, any community resource that is available like self help groups, teachers in community schools, rural & urban development policy implementing agencies (Municipal corporation, panchayat),Training programmes available for people with disability to take on these roles. Programs to be accessible, inclusive and provide for reasonable accommodation, where necessary.

    Intermediary Level: (from infancy to old age - specific and inclusive services): Trained personnel available for creating enabling environments and addressing barriers. Support worker to address the impact of impairment on functioning .Human resource to monitor and support the primary level worker. Be able to identify, support and provide referral for infant with impairment. Provide referral for avenues for intervention (ref article 25 of Convention) to reduce impact of impairment Focus on Early Childhood Care & Education to include focus on participation and opportunities, as recommended by the Education sub group. The intermediary workforce will be mobile, trans-disciplinary and cross disability teams and will be able address needs in all domains of life of all disabled people. They will be based at a block level. They will be trained to conduct a block level awareness raising, entitlement certificates, identification documents, linking people to resources for livelihood, education, health and education. They will facilitate participation of the disabled people in the PRI. They would also be able to provide training and support for parents and care givers. They would have the skills to increase communication opportunities for disabled people, accessibility aids for disabled people. They will be able to do resource mapping for the services for disabled people. They will be able to provide individual services. They will be able to address needs for supported decision making. Training programmes available for people with disability to take on these roles. Programs to be accessible, inclusive and provide for reasonable accommodation, where necessary.

    Tertiary Level: The tertiary level includes Specialists in Disability Programs and Services. These specialists will either be Specialists in Functional Life Domains or Specialists in Impairment Specific Interventions or Specialists in Creating enabling and Inclusive Environments. Present training programmes of all disciplines including health, education, rural development, social work, mental health, public administration, urban planning, judiciary, architecture, design, media, information technology, engineering, instrumentation, finance and leisure would have to be reviewed and a change will have to be brought about in the curriculum and pedagogy to make the programs deliver skills that inclusive and universal. . Training programmes available for people with disability to take on these roles. Programs to be accessible, inclusive and provide for reasonable accommodation, where necessary.

  • Specific Recommendations for Education
    • There should be a single B.Ed to answer the needs of children not special or inclusive. No need for special teachers. All teachers to understand and have the skill to address diversity and specific needs of children with impairments. Specializations at tertiary/masters level would be required
    • Courses related to education can be shifted to MHRD
    • Links with RTE need to be established - with special focus on teacher training, rules, norms for schools
    • Curricular adaptations to address the needs of children with specific disabilities in the class room.
    • Education reform frame work which will look into the NCF and the evaluation systems (Education Reform Mission as discussed in Education Subgroup)
    • (Curricular reforms in line with RTE is being looked into by Nalini Juneja and Dr. Sudesh Mukhopadhyay - refer to their work in NUEPA)
    • Sports, recreation & leisure in terms of adaptations to make games inclusive. Teachers, counselors, sports teachers need to be aware of that.
    • Focusing on issues of violence, child protection (also part of model rules under RTE).
    • Skill based training should have more of practical component, therefore review all distance mode teacher training programs in quality and skill building
    • Provision for free & compulsory education up till the age of 18 years for children with disabilities
    • Provisions for bringing salary of Resource/ Special Teachers at par with other regular teachers with additional financial incentive
    • Provision for availability of Resource Persons/ Specific Teachers etc at the Block Resource Centre level.
    • A minimum Teacher: Student ratio needs to be maintained and the same can be ascertained on the basis of research/ recommendation from specific disabilities
    • Trained human resource to promote Higher Education needs also to be worked into.
    • No separate university for disability but integrate issues related to disability in every university

Other Specific recommendations

  • Trained human resource to be available for disabled geriatric population for their specific needs
  • Volunteer services can be developed for across life span needs, with a HR input.
  • A separate ministry on Disability Affairs.
  • An agency that can converge all services needs to be identified both in urban and rural areas. Dept. of rural development is supposed to converge all schemes related across the all areas thro the district collector's office
  • The cadre of inclusion practitioner belonging to a government department in both urban and rural areas from panchayat to the central level needs to be developed.
  • The person has to be able to address the needs across life domains of shelter, health, education, recreation, employment, etc. across life span with a focus on inclusion. There has to be a career path for this person.

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